About 10,800 farms produce milk. About 50% are specialized in milk production. Others are mixed with arable crops, beef cattle, pigs, poultry etc. Feeding practices are various. The annual decrease in the number of farms is about 5% since 2004. The labor force is mainly family (few paid labor).
In January 2010 the 4th Action program Nitrate Directive started.
In 2010, permitted quantity is 190 to 210 kg N/ ha, all N sources included, and always 170 kg manure N/ha. Manure application is allowed all the year on grassland >6 months old.
Obligation to use winter cover crop in all areas (not only vulnerable zones) to prevent erosion and N losses.
Main constraints are competition for land with agricultural and also non-agricultural actors (lost of 10.000 agricultural ha per year), also revenues differ between milk and arable crops leading to a decrease of dairy farms.
Depending of the area, annual water fall, etc. but globally:
- Improvement of biological quality
- N: decreasing of bad class, but still some (NH3: good quality thanks to good housing practices)
- P: good average quality, thanks to improvement of treatment plants.
|Dairy farm size||74 ha|
|% forage crops (maize…)||Crops surface ≈ forage maize surface (20 to 30% for each)|
|% others crops||Very few|
|Mineral fertilizer per ha||84 kg N|
|11 kg P|
|Milk per cow||6,8 kg|
|Milk quota||325,000 kg|
|Main diet of the cows||30% grazed grassland|
|20% grazed silage+hay|
|50% maize silage|
|1,500 Kg concentrate/cows|
|Time in pasture and period||March - October|
- GAEC du Beauchêne Beauchêne 53300 Ambrières les Vallées
- EARL de la Giraudière La Giraudière 53470 Martigné sur Mayenne
- Guillochon Gilles Maupas 72800 Luché Pringé
- EARL Farcy La Pommeraie 72270 Bousse
- GAEC Le Coquelait La Haute Savagère 44140 La Planche
- EARL Claray Le Claray 44590 Sion Les Mines
- EARL Courrillaud La Beunoche 49380 Le Champ sur Layon
- GAEC de l'Herbaudière L'herbaudière 49450 Villedieu la Blouère
- GAEC Les Brandes Les Brandes 85220 Coex
- GAEC Bretijean La Janière 85600 Saint Hilaire de Loulay