Agriculture in Ireland utilizes 63% of total land area and has a big environmental impact accounting for 70% of phosphorus and 82% of nitrogen in surface waters, and for 97% of ammonia, 81% of nitrous oxide and 86% of methane emissions to air. Phosphorus loss to water is Ireland’s most serious pollution problem.
Permitted farm yard manure is 170 kg N/ha (including excretion during grazing), a maximum of 230 kg N/ha from slurry of animal excreta is only allowed with special official approval.
Application period: 1 Feb - 31.October (grassland till 14. November). Since January 1, 2010 application of slurry with equipment with uncontrolled dispersion is not allowed.
Preparation of nutrient balance and humus balance is obligatory: permitted balance between -75 kg humus-C/ha/year and +125 kg humus-C/ha/year.
From July 1, 2010 there will be a soil erosion land register that will force farmers not to plough agriculture areas that are classified to have a high risk of soil erosion. Furthermore prices for renting agriculture area are rising because of local competition between dairy farms and biogas plants (we have more than 600 biogas plants in Baden-Württemberg).
Nitrate contents are continuously decreasing because of reduction of N input. Depending on ecological factors at different locations and planted cultures, the groundwater status can be not very good. For reaching the required good status till 2015 there have been implemented additional measure programmes like SchALVO and MEKA.
Phosphate contamination has declined by 60-70 % since 1985. Problems might exist in areas with high livestock density.
|Agriculture area||57 ha|
|% forage crops (maize…)||12|
|% others crops||28|
|Mineral fertilizer per ha||64.7 kg N|
|6.8 kg P2O5|
|11.5 kg K2O|
|67.3 kg CaO|
|Milk per cow||6,221 kg|
|Milk quota||251,000 kg|
|Main diet of the cows||20% grazed grassland|
|hay, 10% grazed grassland)|
|50% grazed silage+hay|
|30% maize silage|
|1800 Kg concentrate/cows|
|Time in pasture and period||8-10 h/day grazing; 15 April - 15 October|
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- Torsten Riha & Simone Rieger Tannenhof 1 73434 Aalen-Dewangen Germany
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